CBTRUS Fact Sheet

 

The Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) maintains and regularly updates a database of primary malignant and non-malignant tumors of the brain, other central nervous system (CNS), tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity (including brain lymphoma and leukemia). These data are the source of the information shown below for incidence rates about estimated new cases within the United States.

Data are obtained on all newly diagnosed primary brain and CNS tumors from two national sources: the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program within the National Institute of Health’s National Cancer Institute (NCI). Cancer surveillance data (of all types of cancer) from these two programs are combined and are referred to as the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS), the official source for federal cancer data.

There are 52 population-based central cancer registries that contribute to this data collection effort. They include cancer registries known as central cancer registries from all 50 states plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. These data represent approximately 100% of the US population.

Incidence rates in the US provided by CBTRUS are based on the 2000 United States standard population and are reported per 100,000 population for 2014–2018.

The CBTRUS database is comprised of only de-identified data. No patient-identifying information is collected.

Worldwide incidence rates, used for comparison, are from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), which includes primary malignant tumors of the brain and other CNS (excluding brain lymphoma and leukemia, tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity). These global rates are age-adjusted using the world standard population. These rates may be compared to other rates adjusted to the world standard population, but they cannot be compared to rates adjusted to other population standards, such as the 2000 United States standard population.

CBTRUS presents observed and relative survival based on the CDC/NPCR data. This dataset provides population-based information for 82% of the US population for the years 2001 to 2017 and is a subset of the data used for the incidence calculations presented in the 2021 CBTRUS Statistical Report. Survival information is derived from both active and passive follow-up.  Survival data for malignant brain and other CNS tumors were obtained from the US Cancer Statistics (USCS) program for 42 NPCR registries for the years 2001 to 2017 and for non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors for the years 2004 to 2017.

The facts provided below are based on the most up-to-date information available and includes almost 100% of the US population. This information is based on data from 2013-2017 that were analyzed in 2020.

Incidence Overall

  • The incidence rate of all primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US was 24.23 cases per 100,000 for a total count of 431,773 incident tumors; [7.06 per 100,000 for malignant tumors (125,524 cases) and 17.18 per 100,000 for non-malignant tumors (306,249 cases)]. The rate was higher in females (26.95 per 100,000) than males (21.35 per 100,000).1
  • An estimated 88,970 new cases of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US in 2022.This includes an estimated 25,930 primary malignant and 63,040 non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors.a,1
  • The worldwide incidence rate of primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors in 2020, age-adjusted using the world standard population, was 3.5 per 100,000. Incidence rates by sex were 3.9 per 100,000 in males and 3.0 per 100,000 in females. This represented an estimated 168,346 males and 139,756 females who were diagnosed worldwide with a primary malignant brain tumor in 2020, an overall total of 308,102 individuals.2
  • Incidence rates were higher in high income countries (7.4 per 100,000) than low middle (2.2 per 100,000) or low income countries (1.8 per 100,000).2

Pediatric Incidence (Ages 0-14 Years)

  • The incidence rate of childhood primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US was 5.85 cases per 100,000 for a total 5-year count of 17,808 cases.1
  • An estimated 4,170 new cases of childhood primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the Unites States in 2022.1

Adolescent Incidence (Ages 15-19 Years)

  • The incidence rate of adolescent primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US was 7.31 cases per 100,000 for a total 5-year count of 7,689 cases with an annual average of 1,5381
  • The incidence rate of adolescent primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 2.61 with total count of 2,752. The incidence rate of adolescent primary non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors was 4.69 cases per 100,000 for a total 5-yer count of 4,937.1

Brain and other CNS tumors in adolescents age 15-19 years account for 2% of the reported brain and other CNS tumors in 2014-2018.1

Adolescent & Young Adult (AYA) Incidence (Ages 15-39 Years)

  • The incidence rate of AYA primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US was 11.82 cases per 100,000 for a total 5-year total of 62,558 cases.1   The rate was higher for non-malignant tumors (8.57 per 100,000) than primary malignant tumors (3.25 per 100,000).1
  • In 2022, 12,072 new cases of AYA primary malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors are expected to be diagnosed in the US.1

Mortality

  • The average annual mortality rate in the US between 2014 and 2018 was 4.43 per 100,000 population with 83,029 total deaths attributed to primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors.  This represents an average of 16,666 deaths per year.1
  • It was estimated that there would be 18,020 deaths due to primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors in the US in 2020 with 10,190 of these deaths occurring in males and 7,830 occurring in females.4

Lifetime Risk

  • From birth, a person in the US has a 0.62% chance of ever being diagnosed with a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor (excluding lymphomas, leukemias, tumors of pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) and a 0.48% chance of dying from the primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor.4
  • For males in the US, the risk of developing a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor is 0.70%, and the risk of dying from a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor is 0.56%.4
  • For females in the US, the risk of developing a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor is 0.54%, and the risk of dying from a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor is 0.42%.4

Survival

  • The five-year relative survival rate in the US from 2001 to 2017 following diagnosis of a primary malignant brain and other CNS tumor (including lymphomas and leukemias, tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) was 35.6% (2001-2017, data, varying). 1
  • The five-year relative survival rate following diagnosis with a primary non-malignant brain tumor or other CNS tumor (including lymphomas and leukemias, tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands, and olfactory tumors of the nasal cavity) was 91.8% in the US (2001-2017).1
  • Median observed survival in primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors only was lowest for  glioblastoma (8 months) and highest for malignant tumors of the oligodendroglioma tumors (199 months, or approximately 16.6 years).1

Prevalence

  • The overall 2010 prevalence rate for all primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors was estimated to be 47.60 per 100,000 population, or a total of 103,634 cases.6
  • Prevalence in children (0–14 years old) was estimated to be 22.31 per 100,000 population (13,657 cases) in 2010.6
  • Prevalence in AYA (15–39 years old) was estimated to be 48.49 per 100,000 (31,299 cases) in 2010.6
  • Glioblastoma had the highest age-adjusted prevalence rate of all primary malignant brain and other CNS tumors in adults age 20+ years with a prevalence rate of 23 per 100,000 population (23,327 cases) in 2014.7
  • Pilocytic astrocytoma, reported historically as malignant in cancer surveillance reports, had an age-adjusted prevalence rate of 2.65 per 100,000 population (5,968 cases) in 2014. This was highest in adults age 20-29 years, with a prevalence rate of 6.63 per 100,000 population (2,979 cases).7

Notes

a Estimated incident numbers for malignant and non-malignant brain and other CNS tumors were calculated for 2021 and 2022 using age-adjusted annual brain tumor incidence rates (2000–2018 for malignant tumors, and 2006–2018 for non-malignant tumors) by state, age, and histology.b

b Joinpoint 4.9.0.0 was used to fit regression models to these incidence rates, which were used to predict numbers of cases in future years using the parameter from the selected models. Please see Reference 1 for additional information.

References

1 Ostrom QT, Cioffi G, Waite K, Kruchko C, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. CBTRUS Statistical Report: Primary Brain and Other Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2014–2018. Neuro Oncol. 2021.

2 Sung H, Ferlay J, Siegel RL, Laversanne M, Soerjomataram I, Jemal A, Bray, F. (2021). Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021 Feb 4. doi: 10.3322/caac.21660.

3 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. SEER*Stat Database: Mortality—All COD, Aggregated With State, Total U.S. (1969-2018) <Katrina/Rita Population Adjustment>, National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Surveillance Systems Branch, released December 2020. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS (www.cdc.gov/nchs).

4 Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics, 2021. CA Cancer J Clin. 2021 Jan;71(1):7-33. doi: 10.3322/caac.2165.

5 Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. DevCan database: “SEER 18 Incidence and Mortality, 2000–2018, with Kaposi Sarcoma and Mesothelioma.” National Cancer Institute, DCCPS, Surveillance Research Program, Cancer Statistics Branch, released April 2021, based on the November 2020 submission. Underlying mortality data provided by NCHS  (www.cdc.gov/nchs).

6 Zhang AS, Ostrom QT, Kruchko C, Rogers L, Peereboom DM, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. Complete prevalence of malignant primary brain tumors registry data in the United States compared with other common cancers, 2010. Neuro Oncol. 2017 May 1; 19(5): 726-735.

7 Gittleman H, Bosica A, Ostrom QT, Truitt G, Fritz Y, Kruchko C, Barnholtz-Sloan JS. Survivorship in adults with malignant brain and other central nervous system tumor from 2000-2014. Neuro Oncol. 2018 Nov 9;20(suppl_7):vii6-vii16. doi: 10.1093/neuonc/noy090.